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Abdomen CTInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents -
Intro
 
A computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen images the region from the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvic groin. The computed tomography technique uses x-rays to differentiate tissues by their different radiation absorption rates.
Oral contrast material can be given to opacify the bowel before scanning. An i.v. injection of a contrast agent (x-ray dye) improves the visualization of organs like liver, spleen, pancreas and kidneys and provides additional information about the blood supply.
Spiral- or helical CT, including improvements in detector technology support faster image acquisition with higher quality. Advanced CT systems can usually obtain a CT scan of the whole abdomen during a single breath hold. This speed increases the detection of small lesions (caused by differences in breathing on consecutive scans) and is beneficial especially in pediatric, elderly or critically-ill patients.
Changes in patient weight require variations in x-ray tube potential to maintain constant detector energy fluence. An increased x-ray tube potential improves the contrast to noise resolution (CNR).

An abdominal CT is typically used to help diagnose the cause of abdominal pain and diseases such as:
point appendicitis, diverticulitis;
point kidney and gallbladder calcifications;
point abscesses and inflammations;
point cancer, metastases and other tumors;
point pancreatitis;
point vascular disorders.

Other indications for CT scanning of the abdomen/pelvis include planning radiation treatments, guide biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures. Advanced techniques include for example 3D CT angiography, multiphasic contrast-enhanced imaging, virtual cystoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, CT urography and CT densitometry.
See also Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Abdomen CT' (4).Open this link in a new window.



  Further Reading:
  News & More:
Impact of Abdominal CT on the Management of Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department with Acute Abdominal PainOpen this link in a new window
'OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to document the impact of CT performed in the emergency department of patients presenting ...'
Monday, 23 August 1999 by www.ajronline.org    
Abscess Scintigraphy
 
An abscess scintigraphy is a nuclear medical procedure to search abscesses or inflammatory changes with 111Indium-oxine, 67Gallium-citrate, or 99mTechnetium-marked monoclonal granulocyte antibodies.
See also Inflammation Scintigraphy and Gallium Scan.

• View the NEWS results for 'Abscess Scintigraphy' (2).Open this link in a new window. 

• View the DATABASE results for 'Abscess Scintigraphy' (4).Open this link in a new window.



  Further Reading:
  News & More:
PET with FDG-labeled Leukocytes versus Scintigraphy with 111In-Oxine?labeled Leukocytes for Detection of Infection1Open this link in a new window
'To compare prospectively the accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) with leukocytes labeled in vitro with 18F ...'
2006 by radiology.rsnajnls.org    
Specific and Rapid Scintigraphic Detection of Infection with 99mTc-Labeled Interleukin-8Open this link in a new window
'Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemotactic cytokine involved in activation and recruitment of neutrophils to areas of infection. In ...'
2001 by jnm.snmjournals.org    
AbsorberInfoSheet: Safety
Intro and Safety Rules,
Hazards and Protection, 
Radiation Shielding
 
Absorbers consist of material that stops ionizing radiation. For example, lead, steel and concrete attenuate x-rays. Alpha particles and most beta particles can be stopped or absorbed by a sheet of paper or thin metal.
The absorption depends on the atomic number, density, thickness, etc. of the used material.
The interactions between the radiation and the absorber are three major processes: photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering, and pair production.
See also Absorption.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Absorber' (6).Open this link in a new window.



  Further Reading:
  Basics:
Basic Physics of Nuclear Medicine/Attenuation of Gamma-RaysOpen this link in a new window
'Introduction This is the sixth chapter of a wikibook entitled Basics Physics of Nuclear Medicine. We covered the interaction of ...'
by en.wikibooks.org    
α, β, γ Penetration and ShieldingOpen this link in a new window
'interaction of radiation with matter - half value thickness - attenuation - shielding What it shows: The interactions of the ...'
by www.fas.harvard.edu    
X-RAY AND -RAY ABSORPTION IN MATTER(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
'INTRODUCTION An X-ray or -ray travelling through matter can interact with the neighbouring atoms, often leading to its ...'
by www.upscale.utoronto.ca    
  News & More:
Gamma-Ray Interactions with Matter(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
'2.1 INTRODUCTION A knowledge of gamma-ray interactions is important to the nondestructive assayist in order to understand ...'
by www.fas.org    
Interactions of Photons with Matter(.doc)Open this link in a new window
'Photons are electromagnetic radiation with zero mass, zero charge, and a velocity that is always c, the speed of light. Because ...'
by www.myoops.org    
AbsorptionInfoSheet: Safety
Intro and Safety Rules,
Hazards and Protection, 
Radiation Shielding
 
The x-ray absorption is the uptake of energy or the decrease of the number of photons by the tissue or matter through which the radiation travels.
Absorption in nuclear reactions and particulate radiation is a process of taking up kinetic energy of particles or the combination of particles with an atom, a nucleus, or another particle.
Absorption characteristics of imaged tissues are represented by their linear attenuation coefficients.
See also Absorber.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Absorption' (25).Open this link in a new window.

Acceptance Checking
 
An acceptance checking is the condition inspection that takes place after a new installation or repair from nuclear-medical devices. Those results must be compared and agree with the provided data of the manufacturer.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Acceptance Checking' (4).Open this link in a new window.



  Further Reading:
  Basics:
Medical Devices Policy(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
'This document outlines procedures and guidelines for management of medical equipment throughout its life cycle. It also ensures ...'
April 2008 by www.thewaltoncentre.nhs.uk    
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